Развитие, структура и функции глиальных клеток Drosophila melanogaster

Авторы

  • Елена Владимировна Рябова Петербургский институт ядерной физики им. Б. П. Константинова Национального исследовательского центра «Курчатовский институт» https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0813-6722
  • Евгения Михайловна Латыпова Петербургский институт ядерной физики им. Б. П. Константинова Национального исследовательского центра «Курчатовский институт» https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7470-1078
  • Нина Владимировна Сурина Петербургский институт ядерной физики им. Б. П. Константинова Национального исследовательского центра «Курчатовский институт» https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7863-1748
  • Артем Евгеньевич Комиссаров Петербургский институт ядерной физики им. Б. П. Константинова Национального исследовательского центра «Курчатовский институт» https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3564-1698
  • Светлана Владимировна Саранцева Петербургский институт ядерной физики им. Б. П. Константинова Национального исследовательского центра «Курчатовский институт» https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3943-7504

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33910/2687-1270-2020-1-3-202-211

Ключевые слова:

глиальные клетки, Drosophila melanogaster, нервная система, нейроны, нейропиль

Аннотация

Глиальные клетки (ГК) являются наиболее распространенным типом клеток в центральной нервной системе. Интерес к ним значительно увеличился за последние десятилетия по мере осознания того, что глия является не только «опорными» клетками для нейронов, но также регулирует важные аспекты развития и функционирования нервной системы. У позвоночных ГК выполняют опорную, трофическую, секреторную, разграничительную и защитную функции. Несмотря на то, что нервная система Drosophila melanogaster относительно проста по своей структуре, ей присущи характеристики сложно устроенной глии млекопитающих. Схожесть глии Drosophila melanogaster и млекопитающих на молекулярном и морфологическом уровне дает возможность предположить, что исследование глии беспозвоночных позволит лучше понять основные вопросы развития глии у млекопитающих. Использование Drosophila melanogaster дает возможность изучать различные нейрон-глиальные взаимодействия в интактном организме, а использование широкого набора молекулярно-генетических методов позволяет исследовать фундаментальные вопросы природы глии. В обзоре дана классификация глиальных клеток Drosophila melanogaster, описаны известные на сегодняшний день функции всех типов глии насекомого, а также проведено сравнение функций разных типов глиальных клеток млекопитающих и дрозофилы.

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2020-09-30

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