COVID-19: New disease and the largest new human stressor

Авторы

  • Sandor Szabo School of Medicine, American University of Health Sciences; School of Medicine, University of California
  • Pantelina Zourna-Hargaden School of Medicine, American University of Health Sciences

Ключевые слова:

stress, distress, COVID-19, public health, epidemiology, stress-related diseases

Аннотация

Biological stress is the “nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it”. By definition, stress should be caused by different factors (stressors) eliciting similar neuroendocrine changes as well as bodily and behavioural alterations. COVID-19 (coronavirus disease—2019) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus is a new and complex infectious disease. Its sudden and unexpected appearance in late 2019 and early 2020 found most countries unprepared; hence, it is not surprising that the new disease created much confusion, panic and chaos that almost predictably lead to stress. The multifactorial stress etiology is almost a given in a pandemic like this, e.g., anxiety about getting infected, uncertainty about what the future may bring, depression, isolation, family arguments in close quarters, real or perceived food shortages, unemployment, reduced income or its total loss, all culminating in increased domestic violence, suicides and stress-related diseases, such as heart attacks (i.e., myocardial infarction). The first scientific publications documenting these changes, especially in older populations, came from China in early and mid-2020. These results, originating from online surveys and interview-based assessments in various countries showed 20–40% increase in perceived distress, especially anxiety, with a substantial increase in PTSD. Fortunately, both the lay press and scientific publications advocate stress-prevention techniques that range from the “relaxation response” to yoga and specific physical exercises. The long-term health effects and public health consequences of increased distress due to COVID-19 remain to be seen and must be investigated.

Библиографические ссылки

Adhikari, S. P., Meng, S., Wu, Y.-J. et al. (2020) Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: A scoping review. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, vol. 9, article 29. DOI: 10.1186/s40249-020-00646-x (In English)

Akst, D. (2020) Crisis response has always been chaotic. Los Angeles Times, 19 April. [Resource with limited access]. Available at: https://blendle.com/i/time/crisis-response-has-always-been-chaotic/bnl-latimes-20200419-1ba1df2b (accessed 10.09.2020). (In English)

Benson, H. (1975) The relaxation response. New York: Morrow Publ., 158 p. (In English)

Bernstein, E. (2020) The one thing you can control now: Yourself. Wall Street Journal, 25 August. [Resource with limited access]. Available at: https://www.wsj.com/articles/the-one-thing-you-can-control-right-now-yourself-11598403600 (accessed 10.09.2020). (In English)

Bao, Y., Sun, Y., Meng, S. et al. (2020) 2019-nCoV epidemic: Address mental health care to empower society. The Lancet, vol. 395, no. 10224, pp. e37–e38. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30309-3 (In English)

Best practices in videoconferencing-based telemental health (April 2018). (2018) [Online]. Available at: https://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Psychiatrists/Practice/Telepsychiatry/APA-ATA-Best-Practices-in-Videoconferencing-Based-Telemental-Health.pdf (accessed 19.09.2020). (In English)

Bo, H.-X., Li, W., Yang, Y et al. (2020) Posttraumatic stress symptoms and attitude toward crisis mental health services among clinically stable patients with COVID-19 in China. Psychological Medicine. DOI: 10.1017/S0033291720000999 (In English)

Cai, W., Lian, B., Song, X. et al. (2020) A cross-sectional study on mental health among health care workers during the outbreak of Corona Virus Disease 2019. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 51, article 10211. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102111 (In English)

COVID-19: A stress-test for trust in science. (2020) The Lancet, vol. 396, no. 10254, p. 799. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31954-1 (In English)

Ettman, C. K., Abdalla, S. M., Cohen, G. H. et al. (2020) Prevalence of depression symptoms in US adults before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. JAMA Network Open, vol. 3, no. 9, article e2019686. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.19686 (In English)

Filaretova, L. P., Filaretov, A. A., Makara, G. B. (1998) Corticosterone rise inhibits stress-induced gastric erosions in rats. American Journal of Physiology. Gastroprotection by endogenous corticosterone, vol. 274, no. 6, pp. G1024–G1030. DOI: 10.1152/ajpgi.1998.274.6.G1024 (In English)

Filaretova, L., Podvigina, T., Bagaeva, T., Morozova, O. (2009) Dual action of glucocorticoid hormones on the gastric mucosa: How the gastroprotective action can be transformed to the ulcerogenic one. Inflammopharmacology, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 15–22. DOI: 10.1007/s10787-008-8046-3 (In English)

Huang, Y., Zhao, N. (2020) Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: A web-based cross-sectional survey. Psychiatry Research, vol. 288, article 112954. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112954 (In English)

Kang, L., Li, Y., Hu, S. et al. (2020) The mental health of medical workers in Wuhan, China dealing with the 2019 novel coronavirus. The Lancet Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 3, p. e14. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30047-X (In English)

Kazmi, S. S. H., Hasan, K., Talib, S., Saxena, S. (2020) COVID-19 and lockdown: A study on the impact on mental health. Mukt Shabd Journal, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1477–1489. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.3577515 (In English)

Li, Z., Ge, J., Yang, M. et al. (2020) Vicarious traumatization in the general public, members, and non-members of medical teams aiding in COVID-19 control. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 88, pp. 916–919. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.03.007 (In English)

Liu, S., Yang, L., Zhang, C. et al. (2020) Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. e17–e18. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30077-8 (In English)

Lu, W., Wang, H., Lin, Y., Li, L. (2020) Psychological status of medical workforce during the COVID-19 pandemic: A cross-sectional study. Psychiatry Research, vol. 288, article 112936. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112936 (In English)

Mazza, C., Ricci, E., Biondi, S. et al. (2020) A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Italian people during the COVID-19 pandemic: Immediate psychological responses and associated factors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 9, article 3165. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17093165 (In English)

Odriozola-González, P., Planchuelo-Gómez, Á., Irurtia, M. J., de Luis-García, R. (2020) Psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak and lockdown among students and workers of a Spanish university. Psychiatry Research, vol. 290, article 113108. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113108 (In English)

Othman, N. (2020) Depression, anxiety, and stress in the time of COVID-19 pandemic in Kurdistan region, Iraq. Kurdistan Journal of Applied Research, vol. 5, Special issue on coronavirus (COVID-19), pp. 37–44. DOI: 10.24017/covid.5 (In English)

Panchal, N., Kamal, R., Orgera, K. et al. (2020) The implications of COVID-19 for mental health and substance use. Kaiser Family Foundation, 21 August. [Online]. Available at: https://www.kff.org/coronavirus-covid-19/issue-brief/the-implications-of-covid-19-for-mental-health-and-substance-use/ (accessed 19.09.2020). (In English)

Pappa, S., Ntella, V., Giannakas, T. et al. (2020) Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 88, pp. 901–907. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.026 (In English)

Patwardhan, P. (2020) COVID-19: Risk of increase in smoking rates among England’s 6 million smokers and relapse among England’s 11 million ex-smokers. British Journal of General Practice Open, vol. 4, no. 2, article bjgpopen20X101067. DOI: 10.3399/bjgpopen20X101067 (In English)

Peng, M., Mo, B., Liu, Y. et al. (2020) Prevalence, risk factors and clinical correlates of depression in quarantined population during the COVID-19 outbreak. Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 275, pp. 119–124. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.035 (In English)

Qiu, J., Shen, B., Zhao, M. et al. (2020) A nationwide survey of psychological distress among Chinese people in the COVID-19 epidemic: Implications and policy recommendations. General Psychiatry, vol. 33, no. 2, article e100213. DOI: 10.1136/gpsych-2020-100213 (In English)

Selye, H. (1936) A syndrome produced by diverse nocuous agents. Nature, vol. 138, no. 3479, p. 32. DOI: 10.1038/138032a0 (In English)

Selye, H. (1937) The significance of the adrenals for adaptation. Science, vol. 85, no. 2201, pp. 247–248. DOI: 10.1126/science.85.2201.247 (In English)

Selye, H. (1974) Stress without distress. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 171 p. (In English)

Selye, H. (1976) Stress in health and disease. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann Publ., 1300 p. (In English)

Shi, L., Lu, Z.-A., Que, J.-Y. et al. (2020) Prevalence of and risk factors associated with mental health symptoms among the general population in China during the coronavirus disease 2019 Pandemic. JAMA Network Open, vol. 3, no. 7, article e14053. DOI: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.14053 (In English)

Stubbs, B., Veronese, N., Vancampfort, D. et al. (2017) Perceived stress and smoking across 41 countries: A global perspective across Europe, Africa, Asia and the Americas. Scientific Reports, vol. 7, article 7597. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-07579-w (In English)

Szabo, S. (2020) COVID-19: New disease and chaos with panic, associated with stress. Medical Sciences, vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 41–62. DOI: 10.25040/ntsh2020.01.14 (In English)

Szabo, S., Tache, Y., Somogyi, A. (2012) The legacy of Hans Selye and the origins of stress research: A retrospective 75 years after his landmark “letter” in Nature. Stress, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 472–478. DOI: 10.3109/10253890.2012.710919 (In English)

Taylor, S., Landry, C. A., Paluszek, M. M. et al. (2020) COVID stress syndrome: Concept, structure, and correlates. Depression and Anxiety, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 706–714. DOI: 10.1002/da.23071 (In English)

Wang, C., Pan, R., Wan, X. et al. (2020a) Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the general population in China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 5, article 1729. DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17051729 (In English)

Wang, S., Xie, L., Xu, Y. et al. (2020b) Sleep disturbances among medical workers during the outbreak of COVID-2019. Occupational Medicine, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 364–369. DOI: 10.1093/occmed/kqaa074 (In English)

Xiao, H., Zhang, Y., Kong, D. et al. (2020a) Social capital and sleep quality in individuals who self-isolated for 14 days during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in January 2020 in China. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, vol. 26, article e923921. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.923921 (In English)

Xiao, H., Zhang, Y., Kong, D. et al. (2020b) The effects of social support on sleep quality of medical staff treating patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in January and February 2020 in China. Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, vol. 26, article e923549. DOI: 10.12659/MSM.923549 (In English)

Xu, J., Xu, Q.-h., Wang, C.-m., Wang, J. (2020) Psychological status of surgical staff during the COVID-19 outbreak. Psychiatry Research, vol. 288, article 112955. DOI: 10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112955 (In English)

Xue, Z., Lin, L., Zhang, S. et al. (2020) Sleep problems and medical isolation during the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak. Sleep Medicine, vol. 70, pp. 112–115. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2020.04.014 (In English)

Yang, Y., Li, W., Zhang, Q. et al. (2020) Mental health services for older adults in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 4, p. e19. DOI: 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30079-1 (In English)

Zhang, J., Lu, H., Zeng, H. et al. (2020) The differential psychological distress of populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 87, pp. 49–50. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.031 (In English)

Zvolensky, M. J., Garey, L., Rogers, A. H. et al. (2020) Psychological, addictive, and health behavior implications of the COVID-19 pandemic. Behaviour Research and Therapy, vol. 134, article 103715. DOI: 10.1016/j.brat.2020.103715 (In English)

Опубликован

2020-12-26

Выпуск

Раздел

Обзоры