Возможные механизмы взаимозависимого участия базальных ганглиев и мозжечка в функционировании двигательных и сенсорных систем

Авторы

  • Изабелла Гершовна Силькис Институт высшей нервной деятельности и нейрофизиологии РАН https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7622-2684

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33910/2687-1270-2021-2-2-135-146

Ключевые слова:

мозжечок, базальные ганглии, синаптическая пластичность, дофамин, межнейронные связи

Аннотация

В статье предложен механизм функционирования нейронной сети, включающей новую кору, базальные ганглии, мозжечок и таламус. Механизм позволяет объяснить участие мозжечка в выполнении задач, ассоциировавшихся с базальными ганглиями и неокортексом. На функционирование нейронов в сети влияет дофамин, модулирующий эффективность синаптической передачи. Сформулированы правила длительной модификации эффективности синаптических входов к нейронам мозжечка и шипиковым клеткам входного ядра базальных ганглиев — стриатума, которые отличаются от общепринятых. Из правил следует, что активация Д1-рецепторов способствует индукции длительной потенциации в синапсах, образованных мшистыми волокнами, несущими сенсорную информацию к клеткам-зернам коры мозжечка и нейронам глубоких ядер мозжечка (при условии их ингибирования со стороны клеток Пуркинье). В результате усиливается дисинаптическое (через таламические ядра) возбуждение клеток-мишеней мозжечка в неокортексе, стриатуме и дофаминергических структурах. Усиление таламо-стриатного возбуждения, а также активация Д1-рецепторов на стрионигральных клетках и Д2-рецепторов на стриопаллидарных клетках способствуют индукции длительной потенциации и длительной депрессии эффективности кортикальных входов к этим нейронам соответственно. Вследствие этого облегчается синергичное растормаживание по прямому и непрямому пути через базальные ганглии тех таламических клеток и связанных с ними нейронов неокортекса, которые первоначально были сильно активированы сенсорными стимулами. Одновременно усиливается ингибирование со стороны базальных ганглиев активности остальных нейронов таламуса и коры. Сходным образом функционируют нейронные сети, каждая из которых включает топографически связанные области новой коры, таламуса и базальных ганглиев. Поскольку клетки-зерна, как и дофаминергические нейроны реагируют на условный сенсорный сигнал и подкрепляющий стимул, из предлагаемого механизма следует, что мозжечок вместе с базальными ганглиями может участвовать в формировании определенных паттернов нейронной активности в областях неокортекса, которые определяют сенсорное восприятие и выбор действия.

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2021-06-28

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