О роли кишечных бактерий в физиологической регуляции аппетита и энергетического обмена

Авторы

  • Сергей Олегович Фетисов Руанский университет; Институт экспериментальной медицины; Институт физиологии им. И. П. Павлова РАН https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2491-4945

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33910/2687-1270-2021-2-1-21-32

Ключевые слова:

аппетит, пищевое поведение, сытость, энергетический обмен, питание, микробиота кишечника, нейропептиды, мозг, пробиотики

Аннотация

В основе современного понимания регуляции аппетита лежит так называемая «гомеостатическая модель», которая предполагает, что переход от чувства голода к сытости и наоборот зависит от интенсивности энергетического обмена в организме. При этом изменение содержания энергетических субстратов в органах и тканях кодируется и передается в мозг нервной и эндокринной системами. Однако низкая метаболическая активность основных энергоемких тканей, например жировой, не позволяет объяснить краткосрочную регуляцию аппетита. В настоящей статье представлены данные, указывающие на участие микробиоты в регуляции аппетита. Прежде всего, суточная метаболическая активность кишечных бактерий (2 ккал/г) примерно в 100 раз выше, чем у организма взрослого человека, что может являться основой быстрого воздействия продуктов синтеза бактерий на краткосрочную регуляцию аппетита. Кроме того, совпадение динамики роста бактерий, регулируемой внутренними факторами микробной популяции, с изменением аппетита хозяина является индикатором функционального взаимодействия обоих процессов. Действительно, было показано, что при регулярном питании продолжительность экспоненциальной фазы роста кишечных бактерий равна 20 мин, что в точности соответствует времени, необходимому для формирования физиологического чувства насыщения. Определение бактериального белка казеинолитической протеазы (ClpB) в роли миметика ключевого анорексигенного гормона меланотропина позволило понять молекулярный механизм взаимодействия бактерий с системой передачи сигналов насыщения в кишечнике. Повышенное содержание белка ClpB в стационарной фазe роста бактерий указывает на его физиологическую роль в индукции чувства сытости у хозяина. Практическим применением этих исследований явилась разработка ClpB-содержащих пробиотиков для повышения чувства сытости и снижения веса тела при ожирении. Таким образом, по мнению автора, активная физиологическая роль кишечных бактерий в механизме чувства насыщения и сытости должна стать неотъемлемой частью «гомеостатической модели» регуляции аппетита.

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2021-05-27

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