Обонятельная дисфункция как индикатор ранней стадии заболевания COVID-19

Авторы

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33910/2687-1270-2020-1-3-187-195

Ключевые слова:

COVID-19, аносмия, стандартные обонятельные тесты UPSIT, Sniffin’ Sticks, обонятельный нейроэпителий

Аннотация

В литературе появились данные о внезапной потере обоняния у больных коронавирусной инфекцией. В этом обзоре приводятся результаты обследования пациентов, подтверждающие связь между COVID-19-инфицированием и аносмией. Аносмию признают как один из самых явных симптомов, что позволяет предполагать нейротропность вируса, который является сайт-специфическим для обонятельной системы. В статье подчеркивается, что обонятельная дисфункция выявляется на ранней стадии заболевания и предшествует его основным симптомам. Поэтому потерю обоняния можно рассматривать как маркер доклинического проявления коронавирусной инфекции. В обзоре рассматриваются механизмы, лежащие в основе обонятельной дисфункции в обонятельном нейроэпителии и центральной нервной системе. В настоящее время возникла необходимость объективной оценки большой выборки пациентов, инфицированных COVID-19, на доклинической стадии заболевания. Для диагностики обонятельной дисфункции разработаны стандартные обонятельные тесты, позволяющие получить количественные данные, характеризующие различную степень нарушения обоняния. Эти тесты хорошо зарекомендовали себя для ранней диагностики таких нейродегенеративных заболеваний, как болезнь Паркинсона, болезнь Альцгеймера. В условиях отсутствия медицинских тестов на коронавирус тестирование ольфакторной чувствительности может стать инструментом для выявления инфицирования на начальной стадии заболевания и бессимптомных пациентов для своевременной их самоизоляции.

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2020-09-30

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